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BLOG: Who are the Hebrews

All Inserts are taken from the book,


by Michael Cage


Ancient Canaan was a land of old which corresponds roughly to present day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel, which is also called Palestine by some. There has been a wealth of historical knowledge found by archeologists giving us a clear-cut understanding on how the people of ancient Canaan lived and worshipped. But only until around 900 BCE (some twenty-nine hundred years ago) is the culture of the biblical Hebrews (i.e., Israeli people or Israelites) visible. And although the Bible’s genealogy record shows the biblical Hebrews dating back as far as 2200 BCE (i.e., some forty-four hundred years ago ;) the archeological evidence finds this to not be the case. The archeological evidence finds no signs or traces of the existence of the biblical Hebrew culture before 900 BCE. All this will be thoroughly investigated and brought to light later in this chapter.


There are two faces to the ancient Hebrew people. One face is given to us through religious history literature (e.g., the Torah, Bible, Koran, etc.,) and religious leaders (e.g., Rabbis, Pastors, Imams, etc.)

The other face of the Hebrew people is given to us through secular history literature (e.g., ancient Hieroglyphs, ancient clay tablet documents, encyclopedias, etc.,) and scientific experts (e.g., religious study professors, archeologist, anthropologist, etc.)


In accordance with secular history the Hebrew people are originally known as a people of the ancient world called by different tongues: i.e., the “Hapiru,” “Apiru” and “Habiru.” These Habiru people are the original “Hebrews,” from whence the biblical Hebrews history is derived (as will be shown below).

Unlike the biblical Hebrews, whose history can only be traced back in religious books like the Torah, Bible, etc., the Habiru (Hebrews) history is mentioned on clay tablets dating back as far as the 18th and 19th centuries BCE (some thirty-eight and thirty-nine hundred years ago). They are also featured in the Nuzi, Hittite, and Amarna documents of the 14th and 15th centuries BCE. Later in this chapter we will take a concentrated look at what some of those document’s state about the Habiru (Hebrews).

In mentioning the Habiru people; one notable Encyclopedia states:

“The Late Bronze Age (c. 1550–c. 1200 BC) was mainly one of Egyptian dominance in Canaan…. The period was also marked by incursions of marauders called Hapiru, or Habiru (Egyptian: ʿApiru). This term was apparently applied by the Egyptians to other peoples or social groups who were of foreign origin. Many scholars feel that among the Hapiru were the original Hebrews, of whom the later Israelites were only one branch or confederation.”

Canaan” Encyclopedia of Britannica

As appose to secular history’s epics of the Habiru (Hebrews); religious history tells us that the biblical Hebrew people began through a man named Abraham (or Abram). But secular history shows no traces of the biblical character Abraham, his son Isaac, grandson Jacob, and Jacob’s twelve sons, which the Torah and Christian Bible teaches: grew into the Twelve Tribes of Israel.



Although you can pick up any encyclopedia, read and learn about Abraham and the biblical Hebrews; when reading about their history, any notable encyclopedia will state: this history is “according to the Bible.” This is to say, the history about to be stated is biblical history and cannot be found in secular (world) history. For example, the Encyclopedia of Britannica states:

“Abraham…. According to the biblical book of Genesis, Abraham left Ur, in Mesopotamia, because God called him to found a new nation in an undesignated land that he later learned was Canaan. He obeyed unquestioningly the commands of God, from whom he received repeated promises and a covenant that his “seed” would inherit the land.”

Abraham” Encyclopedia of Britannica

As stated above: when mentioning Abraham and the biblical patriarchs, any notable encyclopedia will let its reader know: this history is “according to the Bible,” which is to say, the history about to be stated is biblical history and cannot be found in secular (world) history.

Concerning the validity of the biblical Hebrews, the Israeli archeologist, Ze’ev Herzog, professor of archaeology at The Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near East Cultures has stated:

“Following 70 years of intensive excavations in the Land of Israel, archaeologists have found out: The patriarchs' [Abraham, Isaac and Jacob] acts are legendary….”

“Deconstructing the walls of Jericho,” Article By Ze'ev Herzog, Ha' Friday, October 29, 1999

As mentioned above in so many words: the history of the biblical Hebrews can only be traced back through the pages of so called “holy” books. But secular history exhibits a much sounder concrete record concerning the ancient Habiru (Hebrews)....


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Who Are The Hebrews

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